Stem cell therapy

What are stem cells?

Our body has remarkable healing capabilities due to the presence of stem cells. These are present throughout one’s life, residing in all tissues to maintain the structural needs of our body. When a stem cell divides into other cells, it has the potential to produce daughter cells, or to differentiate into more specialized cells that will eventually become resident cells of a certain organ, tissue or line.

Stem cells are distinguished from other cell types by three important characteristics:

  • Capable of self-renewal by dividing into stem cells alike.
  • Differentiate into daughter cells that can commit to a cell line or organ.
  • Persist throughout life even after long periods of being dormant.

Stem cells are fundamental tools in regenerative medicine. By enhancing the body’s regenerative processes, this field specializes in pursuing, replacing, and repairing cells, tissues or organs. Stem cells are of medical and scientific interest due to their unique properties.

Mainly:

  • Having the potential to divide and develop into many different cell types.
  • Not aging and may reproduce indefinitely.
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Adult Stem Cells

Adult stem cells are found throughout the human body during one’s lifetime. They are already somewhat specialized, meaning they can only differentiate or become a limited number of cell types. These stem cells are dubbed multipotent or pluripotent, depending on how many cell types they may develop into.

Adult stem cells are found in multiple parts of the body, most prominently within the bone marrow, intestines, umbilical cord, some nervous tissues, testicles, dental pulp, hair follicles and the endometrium. In conjunction with neighboring cells and depending on the body's environment, they aid in repairing and regenerating damaged cells and tissues, a product of the body’s daily and normal strain. In simple terms, they are responsible for helping our bodies recover from everyday wear. These cells constitute an entirely functional and inherent element of self-repair.

Adult stem cells are more conveniently manipulated and harvested in contrast to embryonic stem cells which are found to be dangerously more powerful. SCs are considered pluripotent, which is almost any cell in the body, making it a true challenge to control their fate once they are administered.

Depending on the treatment´s approach, they can be collected through a biopsy, cultured and expanded in a lab and reintroduced into the body. The most exemplary and common application of adult stem cells is during a bone marrow transplant.

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Stem Cell Types

Mesenchymal stem cells

Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC’s) are of bone marrow origin, and able to differentiate into cartilage, fat and bone. MSC’s have migratory capabilities, traveling and seeking damaged tissue and inflammation, as well as promoting the transfer of host progenitor cells to these areas. These stem cells are active partakers in immunologic signaling enabling the secretion of molecules that orchestrate the immune and inflammatory responses, hence their “immunomodulatory” properties, which basically means that your body will not reject them or recognize them as foreign.

The MSC’s were obtained by Stemedica from a US-based licensed tissue center and are extensively tested in accordance with FDA and US government requirements. The adult stem cells were extracted from a single bone marrow biopsy and transferred to Stemedica’s expansion laboratories. After several passages, numerous cells were stored in liquid nitrogen at -160° C, and shipped to a designated clinical trial cell bank, where they lie dormant until needed.

Mesenchymal stem cells are applied through an intravenous application and, for orthopedic purposes, are applied directly on joints. The amount of stem cells varies for each patient and each condition, it will also depend on the patient’s weight and height.

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Neural stem cells

Neural Stem Cells (NSC’s) originate from fetal neural tissue and are able to differentiate into most types of neural cells.These stem cells are very different to embryonic stem cells. They are widely accepted by religious institutions, including the Catholic Church. They are also migratory and may be able to guide resident stem cells toward the damaged or diseased tissue. They are thought to be migratory and may be capable of grafting and replacing damaged or diseased cells. It is also believed that the most important action lies on their neighboring effect on the host’s cells coordinating their functions while secreting growth factors that are involved in neuroprotection and new cell formation.

Neural stem cells are applied by an anesthesiologist though an intrathecal application in a sterile environment. The amount of neural stem cells applied is usually 60 millions.

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